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dcyphr | Biochemistry
Biochemistry

Research concerning the chemical processes of living organisms. Includes articles from Yale BIOL 101 class.

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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractCmr-β is a kind of CRISPR-Cas complex that recognizes RNA and executes a multicomponent immune response against genetic elements related to infection. In this study, the researchers explain how the structure of Cmr-β relates to its function, revealing how binding RNA regulates the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. Using cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), the researchers were able to take pictures of the subunit’s unique structure and captured it in different stages of its immune response. Bin...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractThe symbiosis, or mutually beneficial relationship between organisms, between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri gives researchers an opportunity to study and understand interactions between microorganisms and their hosts in a natural environment. V. fischeri colonizes a specialized organ in the bobtail squid meant for producing light (light organ). This begins a lifelong symbiosis in which each morning, the squid expels 95% of the bacteria and other ...
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    dcyphr-d by Leanna Zelle on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Administering a medication through the skin is called transdermal drug delivery (TDD). Currently, transdermal drug delivery is limited because not all drugs can penetrate through the skin. This study adds a pressure treatment to the skin, which increases micropores and gap junctions, while decreasing tight junctions. This means the skin is more permeable to the drug, and drugs like insulin can be given topically after a pressure treatment with an 80% efficient yield. Aims This study ai...
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    dcyphr-d by Leanna Zelle on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Normal mice, as well as knockout mice for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1 -/-) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS-/-) mice were tested to see how their vessels responded to histamine. Histamine increased vessel dilation and then vessel constriction in the normal and PECAM-1 -/- mice, but the eNOS -/- mice had only constriction. Several agonists and antagonists were tested in each different mice. The results show that the response of vessels to histamine is regulated ...
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    dcyphr-d by Janet Hsu on 2020-06-18
    Introduction Other scientists in the field have already put forth several models for the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA), but there are errors in their models. Some errors are the lack of hydrogen bonding and the repulsion of the phosphate groups. Aims Watson and Crick propose a model for DNA structure.Methods X-ray crystallography images give clues to the shape of the DNA molecule.ResultsIn the model, DNA consists of two chains coiled in a helix around one axis. The ad...
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    dcyphr-d by Leanna Zelle on 2020-06-18
    AbstractBoth disease causing and healthy angiogenesis are regulated by nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The activated P2Y nucleotide receptors (P2YR) can interact with VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This tells us that the P2YR may mediate VEGFR, called P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. Inhibiting P2YR can increase angiogenesis in endothelial cells. But treating the cells with a VEGFR2 inhibitor lowered the levels of angiogenesis back to the baseline before P2YR was inhibited. The findi...
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    dcyphr-d by Vincent Lam on 2020-06-18
    Abstract / IntroductionFinding genes that are mutated in human cancers has given us knowledge on how cancers form. This knowledge has allowed us to develop new ways to treat cancer. In this study, researchers analyze the genetic changes that take place during the development of breast and colorectal cancers. They did so by sequencing DNA from breast and colorectal tumors while also browsing RefSeq, a database that details most known human gene sequences. Sequencing StrategyThe researchers used t...
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    dcyphr-d by Leanna Zelle on 2020-06-18
    AbstractThis study assesses Endoglin’s (Eng) role in wound healing by comparing heterozygous Eng+/- mice and normal Eng+/+ mice. The area of the wound was higher in Eng+/- mice and took longer to heal compared to the Eng+/+ mice. The Eng+/- mice had slower growing and elongated in shape keratin cells. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) slowed the healing of normal Eng+/+ mice, but had no effect on Eng+/- mice. Increased NO caused faster wound closure in Eng+/-, but had no effect on the Eng+/+ mice. Sti...
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    dcyphr-d by Vincent Lam on 2020-06-18
    SummaryThe retrovirus HaMSV was used to introduce activated ras genes to mice. After the tumor promoter TPA was added, the same mice developed benign tumors. Some benign tumors eventually became malignant. Cells initiated by HaMSV can remain in the body for at least four months. This study shows that activating ras genes in mice has the same effect as giving them chemical carcinogens. This suggests that ras and other oncogenes have an important role in tumor development.IntroductionCancer develo...