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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Introduction Osteosarcoma is a kind of cancer that causes immature bone to form, often on the ends of long bones such as the femur, and has an incidence of 3.4 cases per million people per year. It is more common in the second decade of life, due to the high rate of bone growth during puberty. The genetic cause and related events of osteosarcoma are poorly understood, such that therapies informed by genetics are limited.   Paleopathology, or the study of diseases in ancient human or animal remai...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractAnopheles gambiae is a mosquito that can infect humans with malaria. The doublesex gene encodes two genetic sequences, dsx-female and dsx-male that control whether a mosquito is a male or female. The female sequence contains a coding sequence called exon 5, which is highly conserved in Anopheles. In this study, the researchers found that disruption of exon 5 aimed at blocking the formation of dsx-female did not affect male development or fertility but caused females to have an intersex p...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractLeptospirosis, a widespread zoonotic disease, is an important health problem in slums. But, there is little understanding of the dynamics of Leptospira transmission in slums. In this study, the researchers sampled water in a Brazilian urban slum to study the dynamics of Leptospira. They collected surface water during dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons and quantified the number of Leptospira in these samples using qPCR. They also identified factors that explained differences in the pre...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractThis study provides the first evidence of mental distress and its predictors in Brazil during the COVID-19 epidemic. The researchers conducted a survey of 638 adults in Brazil one month after the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Sao Paulo, the epicenter of the Brazilian outbreak. They found that 52% of the sampled adults experienced moderate distress, and 18.8% suffered severe distress. Female, younger, more educated adults reported higher levels of distress. The distance from Sao P...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract In this study, the researchers wanted to determine characteristics associated with the high COVID-19 incidence on Native American reservations. They examined 287 Native American Reservations and tribal homelands, which had 861 cases as of April 10th, 2020. The relationship between COVID-19 infection rate and certain community and household characteristics was examined. The researchers found that COVID-19 cases were more likely to be found on Native American Reservations with a higher pr...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Black people with diabetes have worse health outcomes and diabetes management compared to white people. In this study, the researchers wanted to understand if there were certain risk factors for poor diabetes control/outcomes that were more prevalent in black people than white people. The researchers used a case-control study and enrolled 764 black and white patients with diabetes who received care. Cases in the study had poor control over at least two of these three outcomes: HbA1c lev...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Understanding how antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 work on the molecular level could help with vaccine and drug development. In this study, the researchers analyzed 294 anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. They found that a gene called IGHV-53 is the most frequent gene that is targeted by the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which is a major surface protein the virus uses to bind to human cell receptors and allows infection to begin. The researchers crystallized the structure of ...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Previous studies have shown that black people have lower triage acuity scores (TAS), which determine how urgent a patient’s condition is in emergency departments (EDs), than white people. However, these studies did not determine whether this was due to bias of triagers or proper triage according to the severity of patients’ conditions. In this study, the researchers wanted to determine if black people are assigned lower TAS even after adjusting for demographic and clinical differences. ...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractIn this study, the researchers wanted to understand the relationship between race, trends in the safety and quality of obstetric services, and trends in maternal and neonatal mortality. They calculated indicators of hospital quality and patient safety as well as maternal and neonatal mortality by race using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2009. They explored differences between black and white women for these factors, adjusted for age, comorbidities, and geographi...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractCmr-β is a kind of CRISPR-Cas complex that recognizes RNA and executes a multicomponent immune response against genetic elements related to infection. In this study, the researchers explain how the structure of Cmr-β relates to its function, revealing how binding RNA regulates the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. Using cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), the researchers were able to take pictures of the subunit’s unique structure and captured it in different stages of its immune response. Bin...