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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractRecent studies have reported an increase in uninsured patients being transferred from emergency departments (EDs) to other hospitals, which may result from financial incentives. In this study, the researchers wanted to understand differences in transfer and discharge rates by patient insurance status. To do so, they analyzed ED visits for pulmonary disease between January and December 2015. These visits were at hospitals that could provide care necessary for the treatment of pulmonary di...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Aims In this study, the researchers analyzed U.S data about injuries inflicted by police and private security guards to understand trends over time and by race/ethnicity. Introduction Police violence/brutality is a medical and public health concern. Public health and medical professionals have called for more research about the health consequences of policing. Recent research has examined relationships between racial discrimination by police on health, as well as how public health surveillance c...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    IntroductionViruses from wildlife hosts have caused emerging high-impact diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola, and influenza which are major threats to public health. The emergence of these diseases occurred when an animal virus switched host into humans and was transmitted within human populations. The importance of this host switching is shown by recent, highly infectious strains of H5N1 influenza A, which spilled over from birds and caused hundreds of cases and som...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Many undocumented immigrants with children are detained and deported in the United States. Their children are often overlooked in discussions about immigration and law enforcement. U.S-born children of undocumented parents, or citizen-children, are at risk for adverse psychological outcomes when their families are broken apart by detention and deportation. In this study, the researchers compared the psychological status of three categories of citizen-children: (1) those living in Mexico...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractIn this literature review, the researchers wanted to understand the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding if the mother received antiretroviral therapy (ART). The researchers reviewed experimental and observational studies. Exposure was maternal HIV antiretroviral therapy and different ways of infant feeding (breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, etc.). Outcomes were defined as overall and postnatal HIV transmission rates at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. Literature from ...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractWhether hydroxychloroquine can prevent infection after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. In this study, the researchers conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the U.S. and Canada. They tested hydroxychloroquine’s ability to prevent infection after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Participants in the study were adults who had exposure to someone with COVID-19 at a distance of less than 6 feet for more than 10 minutes with little protection. After exposure, participants...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractClinical outcomes associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne virus, in the Americas are well-documented, but other aspects such as risk factors are not well-understood. In this study, the researchers prospectively followed a cohort of 1453 urban residents in Salvador, Brazil. They used an assay that measured immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), which function as antibodies, against ZIKV NS1 antigen. The researchers estimated that 73% of individuals in the cohort were infected with ZIKV du...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Researchers looked for vaccine targets against COVID-19 by investigating genetic similarities between SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and SARS-CoV, which caused a major outbreak in 2003. The researchers identified B cell and T cell epitopes in the S and N proteins that are identical between the two viruses. For T cell epitopes, the researchers also calculated the percentage of the global and Chinese population that could be covered by vaccines that target these epitopes. The...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Racial disparities in pain management have been previously documented. Further understanding of the causes of these disparities is needed to make healthcare provision equitable. In this study, the researchers wanted to understand racial differences in how analgesia is administered in children with appendicitis. Analgesia are drugs that relieve pain. They paid special attention to the administration of opioids. This study was a repeated, observational study of patients less than 21 years...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract In this study, the researchers analyzed the unrest that occurred in Chile in 2019 through the lens of an epidemic-like mathematical model. They adjusted the conditions of the model using data about the unrest, and observed that the number of violent events follow well-defined patterns of social unrests that have been observed in other countries since the 1960s. The researchers also added disturbances to the model that alters the model to mimic the chaotic nature of the 2019 Chilean soc...