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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractIn this literature review, the researchers wanted to understand the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding if the mother received antiretroviral therapy (ART). The researchers reviewed experimental and observational studies. Exposure was maternal HIV antiretroviral therapy and different ways of infant feeding (breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, etc.). Outcomes were defined as overall and postnatal HIV transmission rates at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. Literature from ...
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    dcyphr-d by Janet Hsu on 2020-06-18
    AbstractStudies have shown that the 2019-nCoV virus primarily infects host cells with the ACE2 receptor. This receptor allows the virus to enter the host cell. Using RNA sequencing data, the researchers found that many cells in the oral mucosa (mucous membrane) express ACE2. Many receptors were specifically found in the epithelial cells of the tongue. This indicates that cells in the oral cavity are possibly at high risk for 2019-nCoV infection.AimsThe researchers aim to study if the virus could...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractWhether hydroxychloroquine can prevent infection after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. In this study, the researchers conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the U.S. and Canada. They tested hydroxychloroquine’s ability to prevent infection after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Participants in the study were adults who had exposure to someone with COVID-19 at a distance of less than 6 feet for more than 10 minutes with little protection. After exposure, participants...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractClinical outcomes associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne virus, in the Americas are well-documented, but other aspects such as risk factors are not well-understood. In this study, the researchers prospectively followed a cohort of 1453 urban residents in Salvador, Brazil. They used an assay that measured immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), which function as antibodies, against ZIKV NS1 antigen. The researchers estimated that 73% of individuals in the cohort were infected with ZIKV du...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Researchers looked for vaccine targets against COVID-19 by investigating genetic similarities between SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and SARS-CoV, which caused a major outbreak in 2003. The researchers identified B cell and T cell epitopes in the S and N proteins that are identical between the two viruses. For T cell epitopes, the researchers also calculated the percentage of the global and Chinese population that could be covered by vaccines that target these epitopes. The...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Racial disparities in pain management have been previously documented. Further understanding of the causes of these disparities is needed to make healthcare provision equitable. In this study, the researchers wanted to understand racial differences in how analgesia is administered in children with appendicitis. Analgesia are drugs that relieve pain. They paid special attention to the administration of opioids. This study was a repeated, observational study of patients less than 21 years...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Background: A myofascial trigger point is a hyperirritable spot on a skeletal muscle. It is typically marked by a knot that can be felt through the skin. Previous studies suggest that they may be involved in chronic pain disorders, specifically unexplained headaches. The purpose of this study is to review methods to detect myofascial trigger points and their relation to tension-type headaches and migraines.Findings: Several methods have been used to detect myofascial trigger points (MTr...
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    dcyphr-d by Alexander Alexandrov on 2020-06-18
    Abstract  This study evaluated the efficacy of several known antiviral drugs (ribavirin, penciclovir, nitazoxanide, nafamostat, chloroquine, remdesivir, and favipiravir) in treating 2019-nCoV. These medications were tested on lab isolated 2019-nCoV in vitro. A series of standard assays were used to gather cytotoxicity, virus yield, and infection rate data. Overall, remdesivir and chloroquine stand out for their effectiveness against 2019-nCoV and because of the experience the medical community h...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Recent news indicates that Dexamethasone may reduce mortality of severe COVID-19 patients only. COVID-19 infection has been shown to cause multi organ disease caused by autoimmune degradation of the lungs. This lung damage is caused by uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines. In order for the body to best the infection, a coordinated attack from T and B cells is required. However, Dexamethasone is an immunosuppressant that would limit the damage from inflammation but inhibit t...
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    dcyphr-d by Alexander Alexandrov on 2020-06-18
    Abstract This is a statement from the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS) summarizing the cardiovascular effects of hydroxychloroquine. The primary effects discussed are QT interval prolongation (heart taking too long for electrical recharge) and potentially fatal arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). This paper also addresses methods of identifying high risk groups and the monitoring necessary to prevent cardiac related death.  Introduction Hydroxychloroquine is often used for “autoimmune disorders,...